When an Exchange Server 2010 Mailbox server is installed there is a mailbox database added to the server as part of setup.
The default location for the database is in the \Mailbox folder of the Exchange 2010 installation directory. For example:
C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\Mailbox\Mailbox Database
One of the first actions you will normally take is to move the database and transaction log files to a different folder. You can do this with the Exchange Management Console or via command line using the Exchange Management Shell. This is a quick and easy task when the database is brand new and doesn’t contain a lot of mailboxes or data.
Moving an Exchange 2010 Mailbox Database with the Exchange Management Console
Launch the Exchange Management Console and navigate to Organization Configuration/Mailbox. In the Database Management tab, right-click the mailbox database that you want to move, and choose Move Database Path.
Enter the new paths for the database and log files, and then click Move.
The database will be dismounted before it can be moved, which you will need to accept first.
The move will take some time depending on the size of the database and transaction log files being moved.
Moving an Exchange 2010 Mailbox Database with the Exchange Management Shell
To achieve the same mailbox database move as above but using the Exchange Management Shell you would run the following command:
Move-DatabasePath -Identity 'MB-HO-03' -EdbFilePath 'E:\Data\MB-HO-03\MB-HO-03.edb' -LogFolderPath 'D:\Data\MB-HO-03'
As with the graphical wizard you will need to confirm the request before the database is dismounted and moved.
Confirm Are you sure you want to perform this action? Moving database path "MB-HO-03". [Y] Yes [A] Yes to All [N] No [L] No to All [?] Help (default is "Y"):